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April 2nd 2017 Science and Technology Current Affairs

Scientists Developed Fuzzy Fibers that can with stand Extreme Heat and Pressure

  • Scientists of Rice University, US developed “fuzzy fibers” which can act like Velcro that could stand extreme the heat and pressure of the next-generation rocket engines.
  • These fibers were made of silicon carbide strengthen composites that are used in advanced rocket engines which have to withstand high temperatures up to 1,600 degree Celsius.
  • Ceramic composites in rockets are now being replaced with silicon carbide fibers to strengthen the material.
  • However, these can develop cracks or will become brittle when they are exposed to oxygen.
  • The researcher’s embedded silicon carbide nanotubes and nanowires onto the surface of NASA’s fibers.
  • The took care that the exposed parts of the fibers are curly on a nanoscale that can act like hooks and loops which make Velcro so valuable.
  • This results in the creation ofvery strong interlocking connections between the fiberswhich make the composite less prone to cracking and sealing it to prevent oxygen exposure which changes the chemical composition of thefibers.

41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresakcomet to Pass Closer to the Earth

  • A comet nicknamed as the April Fool’s Day come twill make its closest approach to our planet Earth.
  • NASA declared that this would be the closest approach by the comet in more than a century.
  • The comet is name das 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresakafter its three discoverers.
  • The comet will pass our planet Earth at an approximate distance of 13 million miles or 0.14 astronomical units.
  • This comet is a member of Jupiter family comets and makes a trip around the Sun for every 5.4 years.
  • With this closest approach of thecomet, scientists can easily observe and study the comet’s composition, nucleus,and coma.
  • On April 12, the comet will reach its perihelion or its closest approach to the Sun.

Melting of Ice in Seas and Oceans which form Melt Ponds increases Life – a New Study

  • A recent study on global warming and sea ice melting claimed that melting sea ice might add more life.
  • Usually, during spring both surface snow and sea ice of Arctic melts forming melt ponds.
  • Due global warming, increase in temperature has led to the formation of more and larger melt ponds.
  • Melt ponds usually provide more light and heat for the However, researchers claim that this will have adirect influence on life in the Arctic sea waters.
  • Mats of algae and bacteria will grow in the melt ponds.
  • These life form will act as food for several marine creatures when the melt ponds over flowinto the surrounding ocean or sea waters.
  • These primary producers will be eaten by the primary consumers in the ecosystem of sea or ocean.
  • The availability of abundant primary producers in thesystem will create optimum conditions for the development of theecosystem.
  • This will also create food for birds that eat sea creatures and over all the biodiversity also increases.

First, Ever Bio-Gas Bus Launched in Kolkata

  • A city based company,Phoenix, have launched the bio-gas fuel led bus in Kolkata which is first of its kind.
  • This is the first time to launch a bio-gas bus in the south east Asia.
  • The firm has kept a flat price of Re.1 for the ride.
  • The 15 or 20 years can also get a fresh lease with this clean and cheap fuel when the company gets permission from the government.
  • The first bus will run between Ultadanga and Gariaa distance of 17 km in the southern fringes of the Kolkata city.
  • The bio-gas fuelled bus can run up to 6 km with one kilo
  • The Phoenix India company will use Corporate Social Responsibility fund to run the bio-gas
  • CNG buses cannot be used for long distances in the city due to constraints in the capacity of its fuel tank.
  • The Phoenix India company declared that it is an approved bio-gas company by the Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation (PESO) and have plants in Gujarat and West Bengal.

Astronomers Discovered Neptune-Sized ‘lost’ Planet

  • Astronomers have discovered an exo planet,e., a planet outside of our solar system, which is about the size of Neptune.
  • The discovered planet was at a distance of 3,000 light years from Earth.
  • The new planetis found in the Kepler-150 system.
  • Scientists used a combination of computer algorithms, transition duration analysis, and false positive probability analysis, to find the planet.
  • A follow-up visual search by Kepler Mission revealed the existence ofthis new Neptune-sized exoplanet Kepler-150f.
  • Astronomers estimated that the planet Kepler-150 f takes 637 days to circle its sun.
  • It is one of the longest orbits in any known planetary system with five or more planets.
    Several years ago, the Kepler Missionfound four planets in the Kepler-150 system viz., Kepler-150 b, c, d, and e.

Depression is the Main Reason for Disability among the world Population – WHO

  • World Health Organization (WHO) said that the depression is the leading cause of disability and ill health worldwide.
  • It said that more than 30 crore people are suffering from depression.
  • As per the available statistics, the rates of depression have sharply risen by more than 18 percent since 2005.
  • The World Health Organisation (WHO) is running a mental health campaign“Depression: Let’s Talk” to tackle the stigma and misconceptions regarding Depression.

Depression   

  • Depression is considered as a mental illness which is characterized by a persistent sadness and lack of ability and a loss of interest in everyday activities and work.
  • Depression increases the risk of several major disorders and diseases such as diabetes, addiction, suicidal behavior, heart diseases, etc.
  • The WHO has expressed its concern as most of the countries doesn’t have support or have a very little support for people with mental health disorders.
  • It also said that even in well developed countries only half of the people, with depression are able toget treatment.

BS-IV fuel launched

  • Dharmendra Pradhan, Union Petroleum Minister,had formally launched the BS-IV grade transportation fuel on Utkal Diwas.
  • BS IV grade fuel is eco-friendly and has low carbon emission when compared with the normal fuels which we are using now.
  • The sale of this fuel has commenced from in twelve cities across the countries viz., Gorakhpur, Imphal, Varanasi, Vijayawada, Durgapur,Madurai, Nagpur, Bhopal, Ranchi, Patna, Shillong, and Guwahati
  • The government has set the target ushering in BS-VI fuel by the end of April 2020.
  • The Ministry of Petroleum is pursuing various other fuels like liquefied natural gas (LNG) for the transport sectorandindustries, for automobiles autoLPGand compressed natural gas (CNG) andforhouseholdspiped natural gas (PNG), etc., to reduce carbon emissions.

Myanmar has become the 7th member of South Asia Sub-Regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC)

  • Myanmar has joined Asian Development Bank (ADB) program South Asia Sub-regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) and became the 7th member.
  • Myanmar membershipwas officially announced in the SASEC Finance Ministers’ meeting which was held in New Delhi.
  • This meetingwas chaired by Arun Jaitley, the Union Finance Minister.
  • Since 2013, Myanmar had observer status inSASEC, and it was participating in annual SASEC meeting since 2014.
  • Myanmar’s inclusion helps the member countries also as Myanmar can provide a key gateway between Southeast Asiaand South Asia,
  • Even its sea ports can provide alternate gate ways and routes to the landlocked north eastern states of India.

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