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March 16th 2017 Science and Technology Current Affairs

3D Structures of Mammalian Genome Determined

  • Scientists from the UK for the first time determined the 3D structures of the intact mammalian genomes from the individual cells.
  • This model explains how the DNA from all the chromosomes fit together inside the nucleus of the cell.
  • The scientists used a combination of imaging and around 100,000 measurements of different parts of DNA examine the genome in the embryonic stem cell of a mouse.

    Stem Cells

  • Stem cells are undifferentiated Master cells that have the capability to differentiate into any type of cells present in the body systems.

What is the Use or Importance of Establishing 3D Structure?

  • It makes us understand how the DNA molecules interact to fit in the Nucleus.
  • It also allows scientists to understand how genes interact with each other and how they control other genes.
  • It helps in studying how genes are switched on and switched off
  • It helps in understanding the spatiotemporal importance of specific genes.
  • In future, it helps in designing personalised genetic medicines.
  • It helps in the development of gene therapies.
  • It helps in understanding the genetic diseases.

Three Teams from India have Qualified for the Private Moon Mission

  • A total of Seven teams has qualified for private moon mission conducted by space technology start-up in India, Team Indus.
  • Three Indian teams among them are Ears, Callisto, and Kalpana. Others areLunadome from Britain, Space4Life from Italy, Regolith Revolution from the US and Killa Lab from Peru.
  • The main aim of this mission is to fly to the moona spacecraft and carryoutexperiments on the lunar surface through the robots designed by them.
  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will take the Team Indus spacecraft (robot) in PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) or Rocket to Moon from Sriharikota spaceport which is in Andhra Pradesh.
  • TeamIndus is competing for the 30-million dollar Google Lunar Xprize.
  • The prize will be given to the organisation which develops low-cost methods for robotic space exploration.
  • The India-based team proposed an experiment to explore the possibility of photosynthesis by cyanobacteria on the moon.
  • Cyanobacteria are one of the oldest life forms on the Earth and can withstand adverse conditions. These bacteria can synthesise their food by using Sunlight and CO2 like plants.
  • The spacecraft will by launched by PSLV into space on December 28. From the space, the spacecraft will undertake a journey of 21 days to reach the moon.
  • The spacecraft will land on North-Western hemisphere of the Moon in the Mare Imbrium region.

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